Thursday, 25 February 2016


If there is one sure way to augment ones mood and happiness, then physical exercise has it all. 30 minutes of moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise like brisk walking, jogging, cycling and swimming have been associated with a wide spectrum of health benefits like high physical fitness level, better mood and stress coping mechanism, increased cognitive and inhibitory control of behavior.

Improved health status has been an area of growing interest and having positive mind, being physically fit and even better mood state are good working grounds. Sustained physical activity has been linked with  secretion of beta endorphin which has been found to augment individual's mood and enhance a sustained feeling of happiness. The amount of beta endorphin produced during and after exercise is also intensity depended with moderate intensity exercise like jogging has been found to produce more beta endorphin than high intensity exercises.

The interesting thing with exercise and endorphin enhancing an individual mood state is that, mood improves even for the rest of the day and directly correlates with the level of physical exercise.

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Friday, 19 February 2016

HE IS LYING; 3 evidence-based ways to spot a liar

Spotting a liar has not been an easy thing. Lies are fabricated stories and the inventor has to rehearse and keep a conscious memory of them not to be caught. For the smart minds and thinkers, it is hard to make a lie unto them and get away with it. Previous studies had focused on reading the body language of a liar in order to establish their intentions like darting the eyes, nervous laugh, blushing cheek.

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Here are 3-evidence-based ways in which one can detect a lie:-

Body movements- Giving a lie makes one uneasy, apprehensive, a feeling of guilt may pervade one mind and body movements becomes inevitable which makes the liar easy to detect. Even when one is conscious not to make any body movement there will be still those micro-movements or micro-expressions that give the game away. The ambiguity of this matter is that there are no universal specifications for body language when one lies but the liar will always act differently. People trained on lie detection may not listen to the credibility of what the subject has to say but may concentrate more on the body language and behavior change during interrogation. Body movements could harbor biasness especially when interrogating people from different regions or individual with certain repetitive behavioral tendencies. 

Verbal cues- considering that body language may harbor some biasness and subjects can also master their mannerism to cover their lies, probing the subjects further on the issue at hand may help to uncover the lie. These may help uncover a lie using verbal cues:-

  • Use open-ended question- as the liar tries to fabricate the story they will lose the momentum and experience blocks in their though process. Ensure an eye contact is maintained.
  • Interject the subjects as they uncover the story and you can raise the game by telling them to uncover the story from the end to the beginning. This increases the cognitive load and if it was a lie, the subject may lose the flow of the event and finally will contradict self.

Be observant and watch down regulation of the subject confidence during the conversation. When the liar thinks is in control of the conversation they are more candid. Challenging their stream of thought in a different and clever way makes them feel like they are no longer in control and their confidence may diminish as more challenges comes along.

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The best (and worst) ways to detect a liar- BBC. Address:

Tuesday, 16 February 2016


He or she may never know that you cheated but you know what transpired during the last day of the semester!!!! People who cheat have low moral standards than those who don’t. When people cheat, they not only cheat on the other subject involved but also cheat on themselves because they believe they can embrace virtues when they are not able. 

Common Post: HIV Exposed Uninfected; 4 reason behind this phenomenon

New research has shown that people are most likely to cheat for personal benefits. This has been shown to happen towards the end of something when they are sure that this is their last chance to explore an opportunity like at the end of a semester, last week on job, last day of seminar and many more. 

Missing out on an opportunity to cheat may come along with personal guilt. Research has found that people cheat when the end is near to avoid feelings of guilt which may come along as a result of an opportunity they were not at a position to exploit basically for personal gain. 

2500 subjects were engaged in the research and they were offered 25, 000 opportunities in which they can cheat. According to the research findings, the odds of cheating were about three times at the end of each cheating opportunity granted to the subjects than at any other time.


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Cheating Is Most Likely When End Is Near- Newser. Address:

Wednesday, 10 February 2016

HIV EXPOSED UNINFECTED; 4 reasons behind this phenomenon


Talk about antibacterial therapy resistance and be sure you will not lose many minds in it. But this issue of HIV infection natural resistance still intrigues many scientific minds on the grounds that there is a small fraction of individual with natural resistance to HIV infection. This is still a subject under study to unleash more facts and aid in the fight against HIV/AIDS. 


An exposure to AIDS causing virus results to HIV infection in majority of the population but there is a small fraction of individuals in a population who despite inherently being exposed to the virus remain seronegative. These individuals are called ‘exposed seronegatives’ or ‘exposed uninfected.’

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Exposed uninfected is a phenomenon that have been observed to persist in commercial sex-workers, baby born to HIV seropositive mother, healthcare workers having incidental sharps injuries, having unprotected sexual contact with infected partner and hemophiliacs receiving HIV contaminated blood. 

There are several factors that may account for persistent exposed seronegatives which may include:-

  • Low risk of transmission through the exposed route e.g sexual contact route. This can happen in a case where the HIV infected person has a low level of the virus in the blood.. When HIV infected person is started on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), viral replication is suppressed and viral load in the system goes low to even undetectable levels in some cases. This reduces the risk of HIV transmission.

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  • Genetic mutations of CCR5 delta 32.To simplify this point, HIV uses two receptor sites order to gain entry into the body cell. One of the receptor sites is in the immune cells CD4 cells and the other receptor site called CCR5. Not all HIV strains use CCR5 receptor site but more than 95% of HIV infection is caused by HIV strain that uses this receptor site. Genetic mutation of CCR5 delta 32 homozygous individuals lack functional CCR5 receptor site where HIV can attach and these individual are naturally not able to contract HIV.

  •  Individual body immunity has also been found to play key role for persistent exposed seronegatives. A cohort study contacted in Kenya, Nairobi among the commercial sex workers who were HIV seronegative found that the subjects had HIV specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in their genital mucous lining which was suggestive of constant exposure to HIV.
  • Elite controllers- these are people whose immune system is well equipped to attack and destroy AIDS causing virus-HIV. This is enhanced by Human Leukocyte Antigen. Studies have also indicated that ‘elite controllers’ infected with HIV may never express signs of the infection.
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Immune to HIV:  How do they do it? Address:
Natural resistance to HIV infection: Lessons learned from HIV-exposed uninfected individuals- The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Address:
Resistance to HIV infection -NCBI. Address:

Tuesday, 9 February 2016


Doctors in Barcelona, Spain believe that they have gotten cure for AIDS causing virus. By using cord blood transplant from a donor who has genetic mutation resistant from HIV infection can stop the virus from entering an replicating in the cell. But just hold on, this seems to be exact replica of the Berlin patient. Lets face the facts here.

The subject of the study was a 37-year-old man infected with HIV since 2009. Later in 2012, the subject developed cancer of the blood -lymphoma. The Doctors in Barcelona gave the patient chemotherapy drugs and blood transplant from the cord of a donor with genetic mutation resistant from HIV infection. This decision to give blood with genetic mutation resistant from HIV infection cognates from 'The Berlin Patient' who was battling HIV and leukemia at the same time and got cured from HIV infection after receiving bone marrow transplant from a donor who had genetic mutation resistant to HIV infection. 

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Current Research Trends In HIV/AIDS Cure Developments.

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Three months on treatment, The Barcelona patient was reported to have been cured from HIV but unfortunately succumbed to cancer he was battling and died while awaiting bone marrow transplant from a donor who was not available. They further added that this does not speculate cure for HIV infection but a clinical trial is going to be initiated for patients battling with HIV/AIDS and blood cancer.

This case scenario is an exact replica of the Berlin patient which seemed to have done much better after the patient survived HIV and Leukemia. 

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Sunday, 7 February 2016


I have always loved being a professional Nurse since those teenage years and my dream is a reality now. When I reported in medical school, I met Matthew- my former high school classmate- who took me through the necessary admission procedure. When he saw me there was a sign of disbelief in his face probably because his former high school classmate was joining him in the same campus. One thing he told me is that, this is not a profession. It is a calling. I tried to internalize that but it was not making sense to me. 

Here are 10 reasons that can make a healthcare professional not date-able?
  1. Health care professional are emotionally distant since they are in an anti-emotional career. They have been taught how to empathize and not to sympathize when the worst of the scenario happens at work. Don't expect to hold long and emotional chats with him/her.
  2. Things can go ugly. It is not a big deal for them to say how a patient vomited, a surgeon aspirated pus during surgery, a foul, discharging diabetic foot awaiting above knee amputation and all this is in the middle of a nice pasta dinner.
  3. They are always serious and busy so don't expect to crack a joke.
  4. They may experience mood swings form time to time. Health care professional are used to receiving bad and good news either at the same time or day.
  5. They advocate for healthy diet so they may be reluctant to eat out at lunch or dinner and prefer home cooked food.
  6. It is possible that a date may not go as planned since they are flexible at work and responding to emergency call or covering shifts is part of their norm leaving you with no other choice but to call off the plans.
  7. They are good at multi-tasking so it is possible that they can have another date without having to notice it or being suspicious of anything happening behind the scenes.
  8. It is possible that along the lines of his investment will put up a medical clinic or a hospital which could be your nightmare.
  9. They have a long working shifts and their workmates becomes their immediate family. They share a lot regarding their personal life and even help each other to solve and overcome personal life stresses. 
  10. They are always learning and there is a probability that the house will be filled with medical textbooks. files, journals and many more. They also have frequent medical education seminars and what they bring home is another bunch of medical documents.
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Despite The Odds; First Human Head Transplant Anticipated. 

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Friday, 5 February 2016


With science, what is impossible today is possible tomorrow. Body parts transplant cognates back in 1950s when dog head transplant procedure was done, unfortunately, the dog died due to immune reaction. This was inspiring for the future of science and in 1970, a successful transplant of the head of a monkey to the body of another monkey was done by Robert White - a neurosurgeon and his colleague, a professor of neurological surgery. They further added that what has been achieved with animal model can be accomplished in human sphere. 

In humans, head transplant has a lot of social, cultural, moral and other ethical issues to be justified for the procedure to be carried out. More to this, there should be adequate and advanced technological support to address this issue. Somehow, this can be justified on the grounds that there are helpless medical conditions which are physically disabling and the procedure may add value in managing these conditions.

“Can you imagine looking around a room and you are just a head?” That is the question Dr. Jerry Silver asks as he terms the head transplant surgery as barbaric and may not be feasible even 100 years to come. But this contradicts what Dr. Sergio Canavero –an Italian neurosurgeon, thinks about the future of science in head transplant surgery. Dr. Canavero’s projection is to do first head transplant by end of 2017 either in China or United States. One of the subjects willing to be involved in the project is a Russian in origin battling with Type 1 spinal muscular atrophy with a rapidly diminishing health status.  Dr. Canavero has many requests especially from people with transgender issues to be considered as subjects for the project. 

According to MNT, the procedure will involve disconnection of donors head and spinal cord cut with ultra-sharp blade to avoid more injury to the spinal cord cut ends. Then the donor and recipient spinal cord will be fused together, muscles sutured together and blood vessels reconnected. This may take 36 hours and may involve about 100 surgeons to carry out the procedure. The subjects will then be allowed to stay in coma for 3-4 weeks during which the nerve endings at the severed endings of spinal cord are electrically stimulated and expected to connect. After this, the subjects will be required to undergo assisted physical therapy for a year before they learn to walk.

This project has been received with a lot of criticism as there are moral and social issues to be addressed as well as the question of medical ethics behind head transplant. The chances of this project HEAVEN-GEMINI going through seems ulikely. Dr. Canavero hurdles when asked said that there is likelihood of the recipient’s immune system rejecting the donated head and secondly, complete fusing of the severed ends of the spinal cord. 

More posts:

30-year-old Russian man volunteers for world’s first head transplant- Medical News Today. Address:
HEAVEN: the head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI)- NCBI. Address:
Head Transplant- Wikipedia, The free encyclopedia.