Monday, 31 August 2015

HEALTH RISKS OF ALCOHOL IN PREGNANCY

No safety had been documented in modern literature regarding use of alcohol in pregnancy.  Irrespective of how small in amount a pregnant woman consumes alcohol, it carries a potential threat to the growing fetus in utero in diverse ways.
The first three months or first trimester is period marked with exponential fetal growth and most of fetal anomalies cognates from this period when there is interruption in normal growth pattern of the embryo and fetus.[] Alcohol corrupts brain cells migration and organization which imposes a threat to the brain structural integrity.[3]

A child born by alcoholic mother may exhibit neurological deficits in hearing, vision, learning and intelligence as a result of alcohol damaging effect to the hippocampus of the brain which is prevalent during the third trimester of pregnancy. [3]

READ: HIV EXPOSED UNINFECTED; 4 reasons behind this phenomenon

It is recommended that any woman who is pregnant or intending to become pregnant should abstain from alcohol use.[1]. If one wasn't aware that she was pregnant should stop taking alcohol as soon as she realizes. [2] Alcohol use during pregnancy can have a whole lot of effects ranging from gross to subtle impairment in function which is variable to the dose of alcohol ingested, gestation and the frequency of fetal alcohol exposure during pregnancy.[3] 

Alcohol exposure even at low repetitive doses may result in intellectual deficits, behavioral problems and growth impairment. [4] 

NOTE: Pregnant women are given folic acid supplements to enable healthy growth and development of the brain and spinal cord. [5] Alcohol deactivated folate in blood and further blocks its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. [6] 

Alcohol crosses the 'placental barrier' to the fetus easily. Alcohol is mostly metabolized and detoxified in the liver. During intra-uterine growth, the fetal liver is immature and lacking in enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to detoxify alcohol. Extrapolating from this point, this translates to prolonged intoxication and exposure of the fetus to alcohol putting the fetus at triple risk. [3]

There is a whole spectrum of complications that comes along with drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy. These complications are life long and may be mild or severe such as:-
  • Miscarriage and still births. [2]
  • Cerebral palsy. [2]
  • Premature births. [2]
  • Low birth weight babies.[4]
READ: ALCOHOL BLACKOUTS- 10 avoidable risk factors

Other significant feature which may be noted in children born by mother who drink a lot are:-
  • Behavioral deficits. [2] like unlawfulness.
  • Attention problems [2]
  • Heart defects [2] e.g abnormal heart sound, [3] ventricular and aortic septal defects. [4]
  • Oral- facial cleft to include cleft lip and cleft palate which requires surgical interventions. [4]
  • Abnormal position and function of bones and joints[3]
  • Abnormal palmar creases pattern.[3]
  • Eye involvement may cause light sensitivity, eye movements which are involuntary, small eyes and decreased visual acuity.[3]
  • Abnormal facial shape.[2] This may be characteristic of brain damage though brain damage may exist as an entity in the absence of facial anomalies. These includes:-
1. A decreased eye width (Small palpebral fissures)
2. Thin upper lip (thin vermilion)
3. Flattened groove between the nose and upper lip (smooth philtrum)[3]
  • Problems with movement, coordination and balance making these children have delayed milestones. [2]
  • Learning and speech problems.[2]
  • Significant growth deficit which is below the average height and weight for age. [3]
  • Structural brain malformation like microcephally (small head size reflecting a problem with corpus collosum or cerebellar hypoplasia) This may be diagnosed immediately after birth as the midwife takes the head circumference or before birth through medical imaging. [3]. 
  • Neurological development disorder which may be symbolized by seizure disorder, hearing loss due to the problem with nerves, poor gait, clumsiness, impaired hand-eye coordination and deficit in fine motor skills like writing. [3]
1. Alcohol, Medicines and Drugs -Pregnancy and Baby Guide -NHS Choices. Last reviewed 06/07/2015. Address:http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/alcohol-medicines-drugs-pregnant.aspx. Viewed on: 17/07/2015.
2.Alcohol and Pregnancy -Medlineplus Medical Encyclopedia. Last update: 03/11/2014. Address:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007454.htm. Viewed on 17/07/2015.
3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder -Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Last edited: 9th July, 2015 by Doc James. Address:https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetal_alcohol_spectrum_disorder. Viewed on: 17/07/2015.
4. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment. By Asher Arnoy and Zivanit Ergaz. Published online: 2010 Jan 27. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2872283/. Viewed on 17/07/2015.
5. Folic Acid and Pregnancy (Folic acid benefits in pregnancy): WebMD. Reviewed by Nivin Todd, MD, August 22, 2014. Address:http://www.m.webmd.com/baby/folic-acid-and-pregnancy. Viewed on 16/07/2015.
6. Alcohol: Balancing Risks and Benefits|The Nutrition Source|Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health. Address:http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/alcohol-full-story/. Viewed on: 16/07/2015.



  

Sunday, 30 August 2015

5 EFFECTIVE WAYS OF AVOIDING ALCOHOLIC HANGOVERS.

One of the dark side of alcohol is the fact that they produce dreadful feeling which precedes the morning after a heavy drinking spree when blood alcohol level are lower and these feeling tend to worsen when the blood alcohol level returns to zero.

These dreadful feeling is literally called hangover characterized by:-
  • Feeling drowsy
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling of uneasiness
  • Nausea
  • Lack of appetite
  • Poor concentration
  • Dry mouth or mucous membrane. 
Ethanol is the active component of alcohol and once ingested is metabolized by dehydrogenase enzyme to acetaldehyde which is more toxic.

HOW TO OVERCOME ALCOHOLIC HANGOVERS 

IF YOU HAVE TO DRINK, DO IT IN MODERATION. 
Having one drink for a woman and up to two drinks for a man per day is considered as moderate alcohol intake. Ethanol in alcohol is metabolized to acetaldehyde which is more toxic and its accumulation in the body is associated with severe hangover. Taking alcohol in moderation is a single and most efficient way to avoid hangover simply because formation of acetaldehyde is less with moderate alcohol intake.

DON'T MIX ALCOHOLIC DRINKS
During fermentation or distillation process of alcoholic beverage, apart from ethanol, there are other chemical substances produced called congeners which may include acetone, esters e.t.c. Congeners, besides ethanol, also aggravate the hangover symptoms. Different alcoholic drinks are produced differently and have different congeners. Individuals are advised to use drinks with less congeners to avoid hangover exacerbation. With regard to these facts, consumption of different alcoholic brands will worsen hangovers while consuming only a specific brand probably with lesser congeners will help to mitigate the severity of hangover.



TAKE ADEQUATE WATER IN BETWEEN DRINKS
Alcohol causes diuresis i.e loss of water from the body through urine. This has been linked with body dehydration, dry mouth and may be the cause of headache. Taking adequate water during and even after alcohol drinking spree will help to moderate the hangover symptoms.

ENERGIZE YOUR BODY
Alcohol cause low blood sugar level. Taking heavy meals can be helpful ti alleviate certain hangover symptoms like fatigue. 

TAKE ANOTHER ALCOHOLIC DRINK.
Hangover is evident about 24 hours after a drinking spree when the blood alcohol level have a significant decline. Hangover peaks at a point when the blood alcohol level are at zero. There is a common phenomena in which people take an additional alcoholic drink in order to relief themselves from the hangover symptoms. Taking another alcoholic drink to mitigate hangover symptoms could be a sign of impending alcohol dependency and individual should work on sopping or cutting down on alcohol consumption.


REFERENCE:
PubMed.gov, US National Library of Medicine,National Institute of Health. "Interventions for preventing or treating alcohol hangover: systematic review of randomized controlled trials" By Pittler MH, Verster JC, Earnst E, 2005 (viewed on January 2015)

Hangover- Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, December 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hangover (viewed on January 2015)

Wednesday, 26 August 2015

THE ROLE OF HIGH PROTEIN DIET IN WEIGHT LOSS STRATEGY

In the wake of rising cases of overweight and obesity which has gained substantial concern in the public health domain, it is imperative to come up with solutions to address these health challenges either in the short or long run period. 

Weight loss strategy should be a personalized which embodies healthy eating, physical exercise, energy intake and energy expenditure. A higher protein diet among others has been touted as rewarding strategy in management of overweight and obesity. Studies substantiates this maxim with higher protein energy-restriction diet producing a greater weight and fat mass loss and subsequent reservation of the lean body mass than a low protein energy-restricted diet. 

Protein intake has been associated with weight loss in several ways which includes:-
  • Proteins have a greater satiating effect than both carbohydrates and fats. Studies have also shown that have a breakfast with higher amount of quality protein may help to slow down stomach emptying hence a sustained feeling of satiety which underscores the need for snacking before the main meal.
  • Protein enhances formation of new energy from energy substrates like carbohydrates and fats (Thermogenesis). Energy intake and expenditure  determines the weight of an individual in the long run. When energy intake is less than energy expenditure there is a resultant weight loss and vise versa. Proteins can function to augment body's energy expenditure which is a key factor for individuals on weight control programs.
  •  A protein diet is also associated with increased production of hormones like glucagon which plays a key role is formation of glucose from energy substrates.
References:
  • Weight management- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Last edited 27 July, 2015 by Xlinkbot. Address: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weight_management.
  • Protein, weight management, and satiety -PubMed -NCBI. By Paddon-Jones D, Westman E, Mattes RD, Wolfe RR, Astrup A, Westerterp-Plantenga M. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1558S-1561S. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18469287
  • The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance -PubMed by Leidy HJ, Clifton PM, Astrup A, Wycherly TP, Westerterp-plantenga MS, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Woods SC, Mattes RD. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25926512. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition April 29, 2015.

Tuesday, 25 August 2015

ALCOHOL BLACKOUTS- 10 avoidable risk factors

Alcohol blackout is a period  of memory loss or amnesia for events that unfolded while intoxicated.[1]

The subjects who black out don't lose consciousness and are able to carry out tasks with some deficit like driving, sustaining a conversation e.t.c. Individuals who experience blackout may engage in heinous and anti-social exaggerated behavior which later may deny such acts or form a selective memory over their acts in the indent of avoiding guilt and confrontation over such acts. [2]

The magnitude of cognitive impairment is a factor which varies with blood alcohol concentration. [1]

TYPES OF ALCOHOL BLACKOUTS

Fragmentary / partial blackout- the subjects later forms partial memory of events that transpired during intoxication. The memory formation can be defined as spotty, partial and can be recalled when subjects are prompted, reminded or cued.[2]

En  bloc / complete blackout- the subject has no memory of events that transpired while intoxicated and memory can not be cued or prompted. The subject has a potential to remember episodes that ensued within 2 minutes but not any other memory prior this. [1][2]

CAUSES OF ALCOHOL BLACKOUTS

Gulping alcohol - gulping alcohol as opposed to gentle sipping leads to rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration which is a risk factor to blacking out. [1]
Drinking games are common and gulping rather than sipping an alcoholic drink is very prevalent and characteristic of drinking games. Individuals are more orchestrated to the odds of blacking out when they ingest alcohol faster as they do most college campus students which compromises both attention and memory functions of the brain.[3]

Drinking on empty stomach- taking alcohol on an empty stomach is plainly lethal. Empty stomach creates grounds for faster absorption of alcohol into the system with resultant rapid spikes of blood alcohol concentration increasing the risks for blacking out.[] When alcohol is consumed with food in the stomach, it reduces the amount of alcohol in contact with the stomach wall for absorption which delays absorption and protects fro rapid increase of blood alcohol level. [3]
Drug interaction- alcohol is thought to enhance effects of other drugs that are able to induce amnesia e.g benzodiazepines. This increases the likelihood of blacking out when used concomitantly. [1]

History of blackouts- individuals with history of blacking out after alcohol consumption are at risk of experiencing memory impairment on consuming alcohol. [1]

Individual Brain Variations- using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the brain of people who blacked out has been found to significant decline in activity of part of brain responsible for memory and attention than for people who didn't black out. This is to demonstrate that different people respond differently to the effects of alcohol as a result of effects of alcohol to the functions of brain.[3]

Genetic variations- studies show that if one twin tends to blackout after consuming alcohol so does the other twin.[1]

Gender- research has shown that female are at risk of blacking out than men. This could be substantiated by the fact that women weigh less than men. Women are more likely to consume alcoholic beverages with more alcohol concentration than men like wine as opposed to beer. Enzyme dehydrogenase is found in the gut and helps in breaking down a smaller portion of alcohol before absorption. Women have less dehydrogenase in their gut as compared to men putting them to risk of spikes of blood alcohol concentration predisposing the to alcohol blackouts.
Dieting is more common in female genders and are more likely to swayed by the idea of cutting down on calories which makes them take alcohol without feeding increasing the rate in which alcohol is absorbed into the system.[3]

Hydration- hydrating oneself can be as protective as taking lesser bottles of beer. When an individual is well hydrated, it increases the media in which alcohol dissolves and avoids rapid shooting of blood alcohol level. The opposite to hydration is apparently indisputable and will see blood alcohol level rise fast putting one at throes of blacking out. Ordering that liter of water can be life saving.[3]

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Body weight- People who weigh more are less predisposed to alcoholic blackout as opposed to those with less body weight by the virtue that, people with more body weight have more surface area or rather a media in which alcohol dissolves avoiding rapid shooting of blood alcohol level.[3]

Know yourself- This can be as broad as the principles that you lay down for yourself. Pacing alcohol intake, feed before and also when taking alcohol, include non-alcoholic beverages like colas, water e.t.c, limit yourself to an amount that suits you, consume beer as opposed to spirits and most of all, alcohol abstinence for better health and financial status.

Similar post: CAUSES OF ALCOHOLIC BLACKOUTS

REFERENCES:-
1. What Happened? Alcohol, Memory Blackouts, and the Brain - National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. By Aaron M. White, Ph.D. Address: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-2/186-196.htm
2. Alcohol-induced blackout- PMC-NCBI. By Hamin Lee, Sungwon Roh and Dai Jin Kim. Published online 2009 Nov 6. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2800062/
3.  New Studies Shed Much-Needed Light on Alcohol-Induced Memory Blackouts -National Council of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. (NY) Address: http://ncadd.org/in-the-news/374-new-studies-shed-much-needed-light-on-alcohol-induced-memory-blackouts. Viewed on 04/07/2015.

CAUSES OF ALCOHOLIC BLACKOUTS

Ethanol is an active compound in alcohol. In the gut, enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase breaks down alcohol into acetyldehyde but only a small fraction of alcohol is metabolized here. [1]

Alcohol absorption starts in the stomach though negligible. Absorption of alcohol mainly takes place in the duodenum and jejunum accounting for 70 - 80% of the alcohol consumed. If alcohol is taken on an empty stomach, blood alcohol level peaks after 45 minutes and 90 minutes if alcohol is taken after ingestion of food. Alcohol may be excreted from the body unchanged through sweat, breath, urine and the kidneys. Alcohol is also excreted in breast milk at 10% higher concentration than that in the blood. [2]

FOOD- people who drink on an empty stomach are more predisposed to the toxic effects of alcohol than people who drink after eating. Alcohol is absorbed nearly three folds faster than in people who drink after eating. Alcohol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract faster when the stomach is empty. Empty stomach also enhances faster emptying into the small intestines where absorption of alcohol is more efficient. This leads to rapid rise in blood alcohol levels and rapid inebriation. The type of food eaten plays a significant role in alcohol absorption. Foods with delayed stomach emptying like fatty foods delay alcohol absorption significantly than foods whose gastric emptying is fast.[1][2]
BODY WEIGHT AND BUILTI once worked in a mission hospital and would have a drinking spree over the weekend in company of three damn friends Alex, Paul, Sylvester and I (Sam). Alcohol had a big toll on Alex and Sylvester than it had for Paul. Alex was lean and fatty while Paul and Sylvester were masculine. Lets see why the alcohol had a toll on our two friends.[1][2]
 
Individuals with higher muscle and body weight are able to tolerate more alcohol than people with less muscle and less body weight. Alcohol is soluble in water. Muscle tissue is rich in water and provides greater space in which alcohol is distributed in the body preventing rapid rise in blood alcohol level. People who weigh more provides ample areas in which alcohol can also be distributed in the body giving them a merit over people who weigh less.
 
Alcohol is insoluble in fat media. People who have more fat than lean mass are more predisposed to rapid rise in blood alcohol concentration than people who more lean mass than fat tissue.
These facts substantiates the grounds in which alcohol has a toll on some of us but as for you Sylvester we need to come together and have a closer look on you because I really don't know why alcohol had a toll on you. [1]

GENDER- Females have a low level of enzyme dehydrogenase which breaks down alcohol in the gut before absorption. [Ncadd]
Female also weigh less than male limiting the surface area in which alcohol can be distributed. Female have more fat tissue as compared to men. These factors points out that female genders are more predisposed to toxic effects of alcohol as their blood alcohol level rise rapidly as opposed to the opposite sex. [1][2]

CONCENTRATION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGEAbout 20 -30% of the ingested alcohol diffuses into the circulation in the stomach. Further absorption of about 70 -80% takes place in the small intestines. Taking strong alcoholic beverages esp those with 20% alcohol concentration may trigger spasms at the distal portion (pyloric spasms) of the stomach inhibiting stomach from emptying the consumed alcohol into the intestines where absorption is more efficient. This slows down alcohol absorption. [2]
REFERENCES:

1. National Institute of Health (US); Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series (internet) Bethesda (MD); National Institute of Health (US) 2007 -Information about Alcohol. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20360/

2. INSERM Collective Expertise Centre. INSERM Collective Expert Reports [internet]. Paris; Institut National de la sante et de la recherche medicale; 2000-.Alcohol: Health Effects 2001. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7116/#!po=0.0687758.

5 EFFECTIVE WAYS TO BURN BELLY FAT

Evidence-based ways to burn belly fat and lose weight for long term benefits.
In the advent of increased socioeconomic status in the society, physical fitness has been a subject of concern for many people with a calculated move to shed off extra pounds and improve the general appearance. Sedentary lifestyle has been in the rise leading to less calorific expenditure and concomitant statistical rise in overweight and obesity.

Overweight and obesity has been implicated with emergence of disease burden like altered cholesterol level with low HDL-cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, cancers, osteoarthritis, sleep breathing problems and obesity hyperventilated syndrome.[1]

  • Low calorie intake.
Weight loss and maintaining weight loss are primary objectives in overweight and obesity. 
Lack of caloric balance is the primary cause of overweight and obesity. High calorie diet with low calorie expenditure will lead to weight gain and vise versa. [2]
There is no firm conclusion on ways to achieve low calorie diet but PubMed denotes that low fat diet has proven to be more effective than other conventional low calorie diets. [12]

There is a common misguided attempt whereby other than taking water, there is a willful nutritional intake restriction for more than 12 hours when one is awake. However, a lot of fat will be burned to supply energy to the body with associated loss of weight, it is a temporally solution and detrimental to ones' health status.[3]


Similar Post: 7 Minute Workout Challenge App (An App for Health)

  • Physical activity.
According to PubMed, aerobic exercises like jogging at moderate intensity yield negligible weight loss. As a result, high intensity intermittent exercise was developed backed with a huge body of evidence that they help to burn subcutaneous and abdominal fat. For example Wingate test done on a cycle ergometer with hard resistance. These High Intensity Intermittent Exercises (HIIE) results into elevated catecholamines e.g noradrenaline which helps in breakdown of both subcutaneous and intramuscular fat especially in the abdomen. [4]

  • Dietary coconut oil supplementation.
According to PubMed, dietary supplementation with coconut oil enhances reduction in abdominal adiposity as compared to other types of oils without affecting the lipid profile. [5]
Coconut oil is a medium chain triglyceride.[7] Studies have shown that Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) enhances excess calorie burning, increases fat oxidation and increases satiety. [6]


  •  Green tea catechins
People who have embarked on High intensive intermittent exercise on the grounds of shedding off extra pound can enhance this anticipated result by taking green tea beverage during their program. According to PubMed, green tea catechin consumption during intensive intermittent exercise will have an influence to the abdominal fat and triglycerides.[8]

Another article by PubMed denotes that green tea and caffeine have been proposed to be essential in weight loss programs. Catechins and caffeine- which may be contained in green tea mixture- enhances body's energy expenditure, fat oxidation and maintains normal metabolic rate during this transition of losing weight. [9]

  • Quality protein in diet. 
Increasing consumption of quality protein in diet frequently through out the day helps to decrease total amount of body fat and abdominal fat. [10]
In another study published in PubMed to establish the relationship of quality protein, carbohydrate and dietary fat with percentage of central abdominal fat. The study found out that there is an inverse relationship of the quality of proteins consumed to the total amount of central abdominal fat. [11]

Similar post: Satiety Enhancing Food For Weight Loss

References:-
1.What Are the He Risks of Overweight and Obesity? National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute. National Institute of Health. Viewed at:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/risks. Viewed on: 05/06/2015.
2. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute. National Institute of Health.Viewed at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/causes. Viewed on: 05/06/2015.
3. Weight Loss. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Edited 2 months ago by Doc James, at the time of reference 05/06/2015. Viewed at: https://www.en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/weight_loss.
4. High Intensity Intermitted Exercise and fat loss. PubMed.gov By Stephen H. Boutcher. Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991639. Viewed on 05/06/2015.
5. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. By Assuncao ML 1, Ferreira HS, dos Santos AF, Cabral CR Jr, Florencio TM. Published; 2009 May 13. Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19437058
6. Medium-chain triglyceride, Wikipedia, The free encyclopedia. Edited 25 days ago by Jytdog (at the date of reference) Address: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medium-chain_triglyceride. Viewed on: 05/06/2015.
7. Medium-Chain Tryglycerides. Coconut Research Center, Coconut oil and medium chain tryglycerides by Bruce Fite N.D, 2003. Viewed at: http://www.coconutresearchcenter.org/article10612.htm.  viewed on: 05/06/2015.
8. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults. - PubMed - NCBI. By Maki KC 1 , Reeves MS, Farmer M, Yasunaga K, Matsuo N, Katsuragi Y, Komikado M, Tokimitsu I, Wilder D, Jones F, Blumberg JB, Cartwright Y. Epub: 2008 Dec 11.
Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19074207. Viewed on: 05/06/2015.
9. Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation PubMed- NCBI. By; Westerterp-Plantenga MS . Physiol Behav. 2010 Apr 26;100(1):42-6. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.02.005. Epub 2010 Feb 13. Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156466. Viewed on; 05/06/2015.
10. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit. -PubMed - NCBI. By: Arciero PJ 1 , Ormsbee MJ, Gentile CL, Nindl BC, Brestoff JR, Ruby M. Epub: 2013 May 23. Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23703835. Viewed on 05/06/2015.
11. Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat. PubMed- NCBI. BY Loenneke JP , Wilson JM, Manninen AH, Wray ME, Barnes JT, Pujol TJ. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012 Jan 27;9(1):5. doi: 10.1186/1743-075-9-5. Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22284338. Viewed on: 05/06/2015.
12. Low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss, obesity Research-PubMed.gov. By Finer N. 2001 Nov, 9. Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11707556.



Monday, 24 August 2015

HEALTH BENEFITS OF YOGA

  • Yoga enhances flexibility- this is one of the obvious benefits of yoga. Yoga exercises enables subjects to assume different poses and postures which promotes different range of motions to the joints and muscles enhancing body flexibility.[1]
  • Alleviates mental stress- As the subjects assume different postures, pays attention to breathing, and concentrates on the present into meditation, there is a biological shifting from the stress related sympathetic stimulation to calm and restorative parasympathetic stimulation. This calming and restorative effect helps to alleviate stress.[2]
  • Promotes mental tranquility- this is a feeling of calmness and peace which comes as a result of parasympathetic nervous system activation. [1]
 
 Similar post:Yoga | prevention of chronic diseases
  • Overcome food addiction- According to Yahoo Newsroom, we hold cravings or addiction in our hips, shoulders, spine, muscles. If you feel like going back for that food or snack with addiction, just engage in Yoga to iron out that addiction or craving. [4]
  • Control of high blood pressure- the calming effect that comes in yogic subjects is attributed to the autonomic shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic nervous system. [1] Regular Yoga has also shown to lower both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. [5].
  • Better Sleep- regular yoga has been linked to reduced time when falling asleep, prevents sleep interruption by wakefulness, increases time for sleeping and this makes yogics wake up with a feeling of calm and relaxation. [1] Among elderly people experiencing insomnia, regular Yoga has shown to improve quality of sleep, latency and duration. It also improves the quality of life in that the subjects wake up feeling relaxed and rejuvenated for the day.[6]
  • Yoga and bone health- Regular yoga postures are weight bearing. [4] The weight bearing effect of yoga can help in stimulating bone thickness hence the bone will not be prone to fracture. [7]
  • Yoga helps to release tension- The most interesting thing is that most of us have tried to remember something and naturally one starts scratching the head, tapping fingers or whichever thing that u do. Those are ways in which human body holds tension. Yoga can help release tension by quieting the mind into meditation of the present to release the tension. If tension is not released then it may lead to chronic tension and influx of diseases becomes prevalent. [2] 
  • Effects on Cancer cases- the yogic moves, breathing and meditation may bring feeling of calmness to a cancer patient by the way they enhance physical, intellectual and spiritual well-being. The calmness and relaxation is a major goal for cancer patients and this may help to enhance quality of life.[1]
  • Prevention of degenerative bone disease- osteoarthritis is a degenerative bone disease. [8] During Yoga, different poses which is associated with different range of motion allows blood, oxygen and nutrients to flow to areas which were not well perfused before enabling them to grow healthy and prevent degeneration of the bony cartilage.[2]
 
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References.
1. Explaining the therapeutic effect of Yoga and its ability to increase quality of life- PubMed. By Catherine Woidyard. Address:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3193654/. Viewed on: 19/06/2015.
2. 38 beefits of Yoga|Yoga benefits- Yoga journal. By Timothy Mccall, M.D|Aug 28, 2007. Address:http://www.yogajournal.com/article/health/count-yoga-38-ways-yoga-keeps-fit/. Viewed on: 20/06/2015.
3. The Nervous System|Functions of Autonomic Nervous System| Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in health and illness. By Anne Waugh & Allison Grant.10th edition, 2006. Page 173.
4. 5-Surprising Yoga benefits you don't know. By Alycia Lim|yahoo Newsroom|Friday, June 19, 2015. Address:https://sg.news.yahoo.com/5-surprising-yoga-benefits-you-didn-t-know-095855592.html.
5. Effectiveness of Yoga on hypertension: systemic review and meta-analysis- NIH, by Marshall Hagins, Rebecca States and Kim Innes. Address: http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/articles/pmc/PMC3679769/  Viewed on: 20/06/2015.
6. Yoga for improving sleep quality and quality of life for older adults- PubMed- ncbi. 2014 May-June; 20(3):37-46. By Halpern J., Cohen M., Kennedy G., Reece J., Cahan C., Baharav A. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24755569.
7. The Masculoskeletal System|exercise and bone| Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in health and illness. By Anne Waugh & Allison Grant.10th edition, 2006. Page 387.
8. Osteoarthritis- wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Address:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteoarthritis



WHAT IS YOGA?

When I decided to feature this article here I was curious to hear the opinion people hold about yoga. I didn't go far but I started right at my work place. Most people described yoga as 'an Indian thing' which employs soft and low tone exercises for leisure. I went further and brought up the idea that regular yoga can be used bring relief to chronic cases of Stress, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer and many more but this idea was disputed with many of them demanding I explain the logic behind that. (And was talking to medics)

Yoga is a mind-body form of complementary approach to self-healing that may involve the subjects to assume different postures, breathing exercise and concentration into meditation. It brings unity to different dimensions of self like the physical body, intellect and the spirit as it promotes healing from different ailments like stress, depression, chronic pain, better blood sugar control and others. [1]

Regular Yoga can function to restore and relax the body system by the way of assuming various poses, slow down breathibg into deep, prolonged inhalation, holding breath and slowly exhaling. At the same time individual focuses to the present by meditation. This entire process relaxes the body by shifting the nervous activation from sympathetic to parasympathetic nervous stimulation [2] Sympathetic stimulation functions to prepare the body to deal with stressful moments like fear, embarrassment and others. Parasympathetic stimulation functions to slow down body processes allowing body processes to occur peacefully and in a relaxation mode. [3]
The parasympathetic response is calming and restoring, lowers heart rate, decreases the blood pressure and slows down respiration. Relaxation effect of parasympathetic stimulation heightens self-awareness, confidence, effectiveness, enhances optimism rather than pessimism, lays plans that excites us, empowers to step out of the fray and visualize life in a new way. [2]

Regular Yoga is self-empowering, enhances autonomy and enables the learner to embrace an active role towards healing which comes from within rather than from an outside form. It also enables the learner to adopt a positive mindset for faster liberation from stress, fatigue, depression, better sleep, release of tension, blood sugar fluctuations control, relief from chronic muscle and joint pains and other benefits.[1]

References.
1. Explaining the therapeutic effect of Yoga and its ability to increase quality of life- PubMed. By Catherine Woidyard. Address:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3193654/. Viewed on: 19/06/2015.
2. 38 beefits of Yoga|Yoga benefits- Yoga journal. By Timothy Mccall, M.D|Aug 28, 2007. Address:http://www.yogajournal.com/article/health/count-yoga-38-ways-yoga-keeps-fit/. Viewed on: 20/06/2015.
3. The Nervous System|Functions of Autonomic Nervous System| Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in health and illness. By Anne Waugh & Allison Grant.10th edition, 2006. Page 173.
4. 5-Surprising Yoga benefits you don't know. By Alycia Lim|yahoo Newsroom|Friday, June 19, 2015. Address:https://sg.news.yahoo.com/5-surprising-yoga-benefits-you-didn-t-know-095855592.html.
5. Effectiveness of Yoga on hypertension: systemic review and meta-analysis- NIH, by Marshall Hagins, Rebecca States and Kim Innes. Address: http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/articles/pmc/PMC3679769/  Viewed on: 20/06/2015.
6. Yoga for improving sleep quality and quality of life for older adults- PubMed- ncbi. 2014 May-June; 20(3):37-46. By Halpern J., Cohen M., Kennedy G., Reece J., Cahan C., Baharav A. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24755569.
7. The Masculoskeletal System|exercise and bone| Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in health and illness. By Anne Waugh & Allison Grant.10th edition, 2006. Page 387.
8. Osteoarthritis- wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Address:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteoarthritis


CHOLINE

Choline is an essential water soluble micro-nutrient grouped together with B-vitamin complexes. Despite the fact that is an essential nutrient, the body is also able to synthesize it but not adequate enough to meet the body needs. [1]

Sources of dietary choline:-
  • Eggs.
  • Cruciferous plants e.g broccoli
  • Spinach.
  • Peanut.
  • Liver.
  • Brown rice.
The daily body requirement for choline varies with age, sex, in pregnancy and during lactation period.
  • Pregnant women- 450mg/day
  • Lactating mothers- 550mg/day
  • Female 19 years and above- 450mg/day.
  • Male 19 years and above- 550mg/day.
  • Children 1-3 years- 200mg/day.
  • Children 4-8 Years- 250mg/day. [2]

HEALTH BENEFITS OF CHOLINE.  

During pregnancy 

The demand for choline during pregnancy is high as the developing baby demands for choline co-exists with those of the mother. During pregnancy choline is necessary for:-  
  • Prevent neural tube defective lesions in the brain (enencephaly and enencephalocele) and spinal cord (spina bifida). These lesions on the brain or spinal cord are life threatening. [3]
  • Supports cognitive function by enhancing growth of memory center of the brain more prevalent during the late stages of pregnancy through birth to when the child is 4 years of age when the hippocampus (memory center) resembles that of an adult.[1] 
  • Adequate plasma level of choline has a possible health effect during pregnancy helping to reduce risks associated with pregnancy like pre-ecclampsia, premature births and very low birth weight infants. [2]

Slows neuro-degeneration with advancement in age.

Choline deficiency exacerbates cognitive deficits like memory, speed and executive functions. Animal studies which has shown that supplementation with choline can enhance cognitive health and diminish severity of memory deficit symptoms. Extrapolating from this into human being context, choline supplementation can ameliorate neuro-degenerative disease symptoms like cognitive decline and dementia. [3

References.
1. Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health - By Steven H. Zeisel, M.D., Ph.D and Kerry Ann da Costa, Ph.D. Viewed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782876. Viewed on 14/06/2015.
2. Choline -wikipedia,the free encyclopedia. Last edited on 25th May, 2015 by Anonymous. Viewed at: https://www.en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/choline. Viewed on: 15/06/2015.
3. Choline|Linus Pauline Institute|Orego State University. Address: http://www.lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/choline. Viewed on 15/06/2015

SATIETY ENHANCING FOODS FOR WEIGHT LOSS

Overweight and obesity has gained a lot of public health interest and it is imperative to come up with strategies to curb the rising cases of obesity and overweight. Despite the public health concern, the major strategies in lowering the burden of overweight and obesity has been narrowed down either to parents to control what their children eat or grown-ups to take up an action and check the kind of food and amount in their plate. In the advent of all this, private facilities are erupting to adjourn the individualized effort into assisted aerobic exercises to augment personal strategies towards losing weight.

EGGS.
A study published in PubMed to establish short-term effects of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese individuals found that subjects which consumed egg-based breakfast had reduced short-term need for food intake thereafter as the eggs greater feeling of satiation as compared to subjects who had a normal isocalorific diet for breakfast. The study further denotes that subjects which had an egg-based breakfast consumed significantly less calories during lunch served 3.5 hours after breakfast. To sum it up, eggs have a quality of inducing satiety and a sustained calorific deficit which is essential in healthy weight loss programs.

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Short-term effect of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese subjects -PubMed -NCBI. Dec, 2005 by Vander Wal JS, Marth JM, Khosla P, Jen KL, Dhurandhar. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373948

NUTS.
Nuts may be included in a diet in moderation to enhance food palatability, nutrient value and help the fight against chronic diseases like heart diseases. Despite the fact that nuts are energy dense and high in fat content, they are not associated with weight gain. Nuts enhance satiety and its energy value is less bio-accessible hence less energy is absorbed by the body for use. Nuts are also associated with increased energy expenditure at a resting state which further diminishes energy available for weight gain. 

Nuts and healthy body weight maintenance mechanism. -PubMed -NCBI. By Mattes RD, Dreher ML. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(1):137-41. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20199999. Viewed on 21/07/2013

Fish
Previous studies have denoted that fish protein is more satiating than other types of animal protein. A study published in PubMed denotes that study subjects which involved healthy, non-smokers males aged 20 to 32 years were served with a standardized breakfast. 4 hours after breakfast, an isoenergetic lunch with either fish protein or beef protein were served to the study subjects. 4 hours later a standardized evening meal was served. Between the evening and bedtime, all subjects were to record prospective food and drinks taken. Study results shows that the subjects which had fish protein for lunch were less hungry, more satiated and lowered prospective consumption of food and drinks. In addition, subjects which consumed fish protein enriched lunch had 11% less energy intake for the evening meal without later energy compensatory mechanism as compared to the subjects which consume beef protein.

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A comparison of effects of fish and beef protein on satiety in normal weight men -PubMed -NCBI. By  Borzoei S, Neovius M, Barkeling B, Teixeira-Pinto A, Rössner S Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;60(7):897-902. Epub 2006 Feb 15. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16482079

BOILED POTATOES
A study to validate satiety index of various food was conducted and 38 different kinds of foods were divided into 6 categories to include; fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydrate rich food, protein rich food and breakfast cereals. These foods were fed to groups with 11 -13 subjects and satiety index established quarter hourly over a period of 2 hours. After this subjects were allowed to feed from standardized range of food and drinks and satiety index calculated. The results demonstrated differences both within and between the food categories with boiled potatoes having the highest satiety index.

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A satiety index of common foods -PubMed -NCBI. By Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E. Eur J Clin Nutr.1995 Sep;49(9):675-90. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7498104.

In another study comparing satiation of boiled potatoes against french fries with or without fat found that boiled potatoes induced a higher subjective satiety against french fries. This resulted into lesser subsequent food and/or energy intake which is key in weight control in obese and overweight individuals.

Glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products -PubMed -NCBI. By Leeman M, Ostman E, Björck I. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;62(1):87-95. Epub 2007 Feb 28. Address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17327869

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